PAINTING STYLES AND SCHOOLS
Since the birth of art throughout the ages, different
schools or styles of painting have been developed and
used by different artists all over the world. These are
Baroque, Abstract Expressionism, Cloisonnism, Cubism,
Expressionism, Fauvism, Neo-Impressionism, Op Art, Pointillism,
Pop Art, Primitive, and Surrealism.
Baroque - The style of European art from the late
16th to early 18th century characterised by extensive
ornamentation. A style in art that used exaggerated motion
and abundant detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance,
and grandeur from sculpture, painting, literature, and
Abstract Expressionism - An art movement, primarily
in painting, that originated in the United States in the
1940s and remained strong through the 1950s. It stressed
the physical act of painting as a means of expression
and was sometimes called action painting. Artists working
in this style applied paint freely with sweeping, flinging,
and dripping gestures in an effort to express their subconscious
Cloisonnism - A painting style involving flat colors
separated by strong blue or black outlines in the manner
of cloisonné enamel, used extensively by the post-impressionists.
Cloisonnism was invented by mile Bernard, Paul Gauguin,
and other French artists in the late 19th Century.
Cubism - An artistic movement developed in 1908
by Picasso and Braque whereby the artist breaks down the
natural forms of the subjects into geometric shapes and
creates a new kind of pictorial space. Analytic cubism
presented different views of an object simultaneously
and stressed geometric forms and neutral tones. Synthetic
cubism, a later stage, reintroduced color and elements
Expressionism, Fauvism - An art movement of the
early 20th century that invloves distorted appearances
to communicate inner emotional states. Expressionism is
a style of art in which the intention is not to reproduce
a subject accurately, but instead to portray it in such
a way as to express the inner state of the artist.
Neo-Impressionism - Neoimpressionism was a late-19th
century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac
who exhibited their early work in 1884 at the exhibition
of the Societ des Artistes Ind pendents in Paris. Due
to the extreme similarity and similar backgrounds of Pointillism
and Neoimpressionism, both styles may be referred to solely
Op Art - From the early 1960's, this art form uses
arbitrary patterns of shape, color, and value to create
optical illusions or effects to suggest movement. The
name was coined in the 1970s for a style popular
in 1947 employing optical illusion by juxtaposing colour
and line in geometric patterns that seem to come alive.
Pointillism - Developed by French artist Georges
Seurat in the 1880s, this system of painting uses tiny
dots or "points" of color to compose forms that
are visible to the viewer only from a distance where the
eye blends the points to create such forms or objects.
Pop Art - An artistic style that features images
of the popular culture such as comic strips, magazine
ads, and supermarket products. This art emerged in the
1960s in the city of New York after starting in London
during the 1950s.
Primitive - This art style evokes an imagery of
folk art and places emphasis on form and expression. Primitive
art has an awkward relationship to the formal qualities
Surrealism - An artistic movement that developed
in Europe in the 1920's. SUrrealism uses illogical, dreamlike
images and events to suggest the unconscious.